Orchard Dojo Library for Orchard 1.x

The Orchard Dojo Library is a portable package of Orchard 1.x. goodies. It supplements Orchard Dojo's trainings and tutorials. These are also part of the best practices and guidelines we use at Lombiq.

You can download the whole Library, file issues or fork it from its repository. Also you can download the Library's textual content as one big concatenated document in HTML.

Orchard link collection

Official sites

Community sites


All blogs from the Orchard community are automatically scraped by Orchard Blogs.

Technologies behind Orchard


Software development guidelines

If something’s not specified, general C# guidelines apply: C# Coding Conventions and General Naming Conventions. Also see Orchard Code Conventions. The talk How To Design A Good API And Why It Matters is an evergreen as well as the .NET Framework Design Guidelines Digest.

Coding best practices

General principles to keep in mind


C# best practices

When returning a collection, always return an empty collection if there are no elements, but never null. When accepting a collection as a method argument, however, always check for null.

IEnumerable<int> MyMethod(IEnumerable<int> collection)
    // Check for null and handle it somehow
    if (collection == null) throw new ArgumentNullException("collection");

    if (nothingToReturn) return Enumerable.Empty<int>();
    else return normally;

Keep interfaces as short as possible so it’s relatively simple to provide alternative implementation for them (even when doing unit testing).

If a method would serve just as a shortcut for multiple method calls on the same interface, use extension methods. Whether or not to use an extension method should be decided on a case-by case basis as future-aware as possible: only use extension methods if the shortcut is (almost) trivial and add the method to the interface if the optimal solution is more likely to depend on the specific implementation.

// Good example: the shortcut is simple
public interface IService
    void Register(int id);

public static class ServiceExtensions
    void Register(this IService service, DbEntity entity)

// Extensions are also useful if you want to provide default arguments for methods and want to do it with overloads
public interface IService
    IEnumerable<DbEntity> GetItems(int maxCount);

public static class ServiceExtensions
    IEnumerable<DbEntity> GetItems(this IService service)
        // This extension provides a default value for the GetItems() method call

// Bad example: GetMany() results in many Get() calls. The implementation of GetMany() is something that the implementation of IService is likely to decide on better.
public interface IService
    object Get(int id);

public static class ServiceExtensions
    IEnumerable<object> GetMany(this IService service, IEnumerable<int> ids)
        return ids.Select(id => service.Get(id));

For the extension class use the naming convention of [interface name without the leading I]Extensions as above and put them in the same namespace with the interface (so consumers seeing the interface will likely be able to see the extensions without adding another using statement).

Try to keep the maximal number of arguments on a method to 3.

Almost always return an interface type and return the most generic one making sense for the typical consuming code.

public interface IService
    // When in doubt, use IEnumerable<> for collections
    IEnumerable<int> GetItems();

    // If you need List's certain features like mutability or the ability to access items by index commonly in the consuming code return an IList<>
    IList<int> GetItemsList();

Never use view models in a service interface: services and views have nothing to do with each other.

Use the "empty pattern" where you want to provide a default object.

public class MyClass
    // Default will return this single instance, initialized with its default constructor
    private static readonly MyClass _default = new MyClass();
    public static MyClass Default { get { return _default; } }

This is used by .NET's String class (String.Empty) and also by Orchard's QueryHints class (QueryHints.Empty).

When checking if an IEnumerable<T> is empty always use enumerable.Any() instead of enumerable.Count() == 0.

When writing "async void", think twice. Unless written for event handlers async void should be avoided at least because exceptions in such methods can tear down the whole application. See this SO post. If you write such methods always surround it with a try-catch that catches the base Exception so no exception can escape.

If you insists on using short variable names then use ex for exceptions and e for event handler arguments.

When your class implements multiple interfaces with a lot of methods it's best to explicitly implement them. This way it's immediately visible which method corresponds to which interface.

Using initialization methods on your classes like Init() is a sign of bad design most of the time as this requires the user to remember to call it before anything can be done. Consider refactoring the class to require necessary data through the constructor (probably even using a static factory) or by computing initialization data on the first demand, lazily.

Service classes should be stateless, i.e. their methods should give the same output for the same input.

When referencing another project from the same solution always add a project reference, not an assembly reference.

Orchard best practices

Always do part shape-related heavy work in shape factories inside drivers: this way if the shape is not displayed (i.e. not specified in or hidden from Placement.info) no work will be done.

protected override DriverResult Display(MyPart part, string displayType, dynamic shapeHelper) { return ContentShape("PartsMy", () => { // This delegate will only run if the shape is actually displayed. var heavy = /Some heavy work/; return shapeHelper.PartsMy(Heavy: heavy); }); }

When writing a theme if something is achievable by only CSS, then use only CSS and avoid having shape template overrides with minimal modifications. If you absolutely have to create shape overrides then try to override the most specific shape possible: e.g. if you need to override the markup of blogposts' date shown then override just Common.Metadata (the shape responsible for showing the date) and not the whole Content shape.

If a template uses a static resource (stylesheet or script) always include/require it there even if the template is part of a bigger layout where those resources are already referenced. This makes it easier to keep track of dependent resources and is not prone to errors caused by changes outside the specific template.

For improving client-side performance by preventing blocking script loads always include scripts in the foot if they’re not required immediately on page load. Also consider using the async attribute on scripts (by setting it with SetAttribute() at the time of inclusion) if the order in which they’re executed is indifferent.

@{ // This script will be downloaded asynchronously, without blocking the page loading, but you can't count on it being available at any point in other scripts (so if you have dependent scripts you have to use callbacks or events to signal if the script is loaded). Script.Include("my-async-script").SetAttribute("async", "async");

 // This script will be downloaded synchronously but since it's in the foot it won't block the page load and the user will be able to see the full page sooner.

 // Use such usings to run script blocks depending on foot scripts
 using (Script.Foot())
     <script type="text/javascript">
         // Use footscripts here


When you have multiple features in a single module always make the sub-features depend on the main feature for clarity. This will prevent confusion if you want to place some common functionality in the main feature. It should also be the requirement anyway: sub-features are in that module because they have something in common with the main feature.

Always set the Build Action of non-code files (like Placement.info) to Content (under the file's properties in Visual Studio) if they are included in the project (and don't have Content set by default, what they mostly have). Otherwise MSBuild will fail when building Orchard. See a related blogpost.

Although not mandatory, it's good practice to route all your admin controller to under /Admin in a similar way how controllers named AdminController are routed by default. This makes it easier to set up rules for the admin area if one needs it.

Texts presented to the user should always be in form of LocalizedStrings (aka T()). When you want to display dynamic data in the string, it should always have its parameters supplied to it. Never concatenate localized strings with other values as this prevents complete localization. E.g. if you want to display the number of elements use a printf-like pattern:

T("Number of elements: {0}", Model.Count)

See the relevant documentation.

It's nice to have a consistent ordering for dependencies in module manifest files. A good way is to begin with third-party features, then list built-in ones (Orchard.*), both in alphabetical order.

When writing a recurring scheduled task (i.e scheduled tasks that re-schedule themselves) then add the re-scheduling as early as possible to the task handler's Process() method. This lowers the chance of an error causing the task not to be re-scheduled.

When doing I/O-bound work, always use async APIs if available (e.g. web requests, file writes). Using async I/O greatly increases the throughput of the server by not blocking threads to wait for I/O completion.

When you add a client-side plugin to your module or theme (like a jQuery plugin that uses various JS and CSS files, has a readme, etc.) then it's best to keep the folder structure of the plugin intact and copy it to the extension's Content folder (a folder simply serving static files with the same Web.config as Styles and Scripts folders) under its own subfolder. This way maintaining and upgrading the plugin will be easier, not to mention that developers will be able to see all of its files at once.

You'll be able to still include static resources from such a folder through the ResourceManager, you'll just have to use relative paths, e.g. like this in a resource manifest:


The same goes for Script/Style.Include() calls from view templates.

When writing Migrations it's best to consolidate the latest schema in the Create method and only make UpdateFromX() run for existing installations.

public class Migrations : DataMigrationImpl
    public int Create()
            table => table
                .Column<int>("Id", column => column.PrimaryKey().Identity())
                // The Bio column was added later, so it's added in UpdateFrom1() for existing installations.
                // It's also added here for new installations.
                .Column<string>("Bio", column => column.Unlimited())

        // UpdateFrom1() won't run for new installations, they will have the Bio column added by default.
        return 2;

    public int UpdateFrom1()
        // Adding the Bio column for old installations.
            table =>
                table.AddColumn<string>("Bio", column => column.Unlimited())

        return 2;

Never do any non-trivial work (i.e. pretty much anything apart from variable assignments) in the constructors of injectable types. The dependency injection framework can instantiate your type any time, as the tree of dependencies can result in hundreds of instantiations happening when a type is resolved. Thus any work done in a constructor can possibly have a negative performance effect in seemingly unrelated cases.

If you want to produce a value for a field that won't change during the lifetime of the object then do this by lazily producing that value when its first accessed (e.g. with Lazy<T>) .

When you want to store the ID of a content item always use the ContentItem.Id property, never the Id of a content part (if you have a reference to a part you can access the content item ID simply through part.ContentItem.Id). This is because a content part can have a different ID (e.g. due to versioning) than the content item it is attached to.

When you want to access a form field from JavaScript that was built with a statically typed Html helper for a view model property (like with Html.HiddenFor()) then never hard-code the field element's ID into your script: such generated IDs can change with the underlying implementation and by changing the editor prefix. Instead, populate such IDs from your templates, e.g. by passing the output of Html.FieldIdFor() to the script.

When creating a new controller action don't forget to set the page title somewhere, best from the main view template of the action. I.e.:

<h1>@Html.TitleForPage(T("My Page"))</h1>

Or if you just want to set the content of the <title> tag directly (like it is necessary on admin pages, where the title is already displayed):

 Layout.Title = T("My Page");

Note that generally it's bad practice to set the title from content part shape templates: those are meant to be a fragment of the layout so they shouldn't set the title directly; the title is to be set by a higher level component that actually knows what the whole page is about.

About displaying validation info in templates:

If you want to display the validation errors corresponding to a specific field, which is generally a good practice, then you can display it like this:

@Html.ValidationMessageFor(m => m.MyField)

Most of the time it's good practice to also, or instead display a validation summary on the top of the page, but close to the form:


Never display a validation summary from a content part editor for the same reason as not to set the page title (see above).

When creating ad-hoc shapes then (unless the shapes are very generic) prefix the shapes' names with the module's name (e.g. My_Company_My_Module_My_Shape). Shape names are global identifiers, so if they're only interesting for your module you have to use an appropriate name.

Remember authorization! When letting the user fetch content items by ID or otherwise in any way remember that a malicious user might try to trick your code into fetching content not intended to be shown. As a rule of thumb you should always authorize the user's access (through the IAuthorizer service when in a controller if you also want to display authorization messages; otherwise through IAuthorizationService) to a content item object.

Never check the "Own" content permissions (like DeleteOwnContent) directly, just the generic ones (e.g. DeleteContent) as the former ones are handled internally by the latter ones.

When you have no choice but catching the base Exception then use exception fatality check.

Checklist to go through when finishing a new module or theme:

JavaScript best practices

Use single quotation mark ' for strings.

var myString = 'String content';

If you need two or more sets of quotation marks, use ' on the outside, and " on the inside

var searchResult = '<li><a href="Result_URL">Result</a></li>';

Prefix jQuery objects with the dollar sign ($) so they can be distinguished from other objects.

var $header = $('#header');

Instead of using the $ variable directly use a wrapper to inject the jQuery object and only use the dollar sign in the local scope.

// The dollar sign will be used only inside the anonymous function here.
(($) => {
    // The variable $ now refers to jQuery.

Add any DOM manipulation code and event handlers inside the document.ready() function to make sure the script does not try to find the elements before the DOM has finished loading. This is recommended by the official jQuery documentation.

// Notice how it's a shorthand for a wrapper for the $ variable (as above) and also a document.ready() at once.
// Use this if you only want to write a quick document.ready().
jQuery(($) => {
    $('.elementClass').on('click', () => { // Click event handler.
        alert('I have been clicked.');

Try to avoid adding variables to the global scope. A handy way of exposing globals is to namespace them under jQuery as demonstrated with the following example:

(($) => {
    $.extend(true, {
        myModule: {
            // Such deep nesting is not always necessary, the method could be on this level directly
            myClass: { // More of a "class" than a real class of course
                myMethod() {
                    alert('myMethod called!');

    // You can use the above like this:

When you want to access resources under a given URL of the current web application (like fetching data from a web API endpoint) never hard-code the URL into yours scripts. URLs can change and may depend on the environment (a trivial example being the usage of ApplicationPath that e.g. could prefix URL's during local development but can be empty in the production environment).

Instead inject such information into your scripts from templates.

CSS best practices

Use a language that eases CSS development and compiles into CSS like LESS or SASS. It's really worth trying! (And there's good tooling support.)

When something is possible to style in a straightforward way without the usage of images by only using CSS (even e.g. by using font icons), then do it from CSS.

Try to avoid HTML markup that serves just to enable some kind of styling.

For HTML classes and IDs use dashed names e.g. this-is-a-class. In Orchard modules you may prefix these with the module name.

Source control best practices

The following advice applies to the Mercurial source control system and assume the usage of the TortoiseHg client. See the Mercurial Kick Start for a more holistic tutorial. Also there's a nice tutorial regarding TortoiseHg and Codeplex.



Code styling

See this page.

Naming conventions

Rules of thumb for refactoring

Consider refactoring in these cases:

Renaming a project

You should do the following steps to rename an existing .NET project (including an Orchard module or theme).

  1. Make a backup or commit to source control before attempting the rename.
  2. Rename the project from inside Visual Studio. This will change the project's name in a lot of manifest files.
  3. Search and replace the project's name in all files of the project or even of the solution (if you project's name is not a unique text be careful). This will rename all namespaces too.
  4. Search and replace the project's name in the project file (.csproj file). This will rename the project's default root namespace and its resulting assembly's name.
  5. Rename the project's folder (if it has one) to match the project's names. You'll have to re-add the project file under its new location to the solution as well as to other projects' references (if any).

Inline documentation guidelines

See this page.

Code review guidelines

Doing static code reviews is a great way to improve code quality and share knowledge in a team.

Development environment advice

See this page.

Orchard performance optimization guidelines

Orchard performance checklist

When optimizing an Orchard site's performance (or just putting it into production) check these points for the most obvious ways for a boost.

Detecting performance bottlenecks

Mini Profiler is an easy to use Orchard module for pinpointing (mostly DB-related) bottlenecks quickly, even on a production machine.

Updating your Orchard instance by copying the latest source

This list serves as a guideline how to update your Orchard source if you maintain a copy of the full source (see a description for this).

  1. Clone or pull the latest source from the main Orchard repository and checkout to the changeset you want to update your instance to.
  2. Archive a snapshot of the repo at the specific changeset.
  3. Remove the lib folder in your own solution folder. Outdated libs can cause nasty errors.
  4. Copy the source over to your own solution folder, without the .gitignore file (unless you use it in your own repo of course).
  5. These only apply if you're using a solution file other than the default Orchard.sln (if you're using Orchard.sln just merge that file:
    • Merge Orchard.proj (it references the solution file).
    • Add any new modules to your solution and remove deleted ones (including the removal of the modules' folders).
  6. Merge Orchard.Web.csproj. You may have some custom files included there.
  7. Merge Orchard.Web/Web.config if you have modified anything in the original Web.config (better to use custom config files for different build targets) or the targeted Web.configs (Release and Debug).
  8. Rebuild the solution to check for any build errors.
  9. Run the site to test if everything is working as intended.

Creating a new repository of the full Orchard source for your project

If from the possible ways of source controlling an Orchard solution you've chosen to keep the full Orchard source in your project's repository then these are the steps to follow when creating the solution:

  1. Copy over the full Orchard source into your repository.
  2. Copy Orchard.sln and rename the copy to the name of your application. Having a copy of the solution file will make upgrades more complicated but it will help to distinguish between the different Orchard solutions you may work on.
  3. Rename any references to "Orchard.sln" to your own solution file in the Orchard.proj file in the root.
  4. If you're using IIS Express to run the app then it's best to change the default Project Url: right click Orchard.Web/Properties/Web. Using a different app path instead of the default "OrchardLocal" is enough to differentiate between different solutions.
  5. Depending on your preference for text file line endings (CRLF - Windows style or LF - Linux style) and the source control system to use (Git or Mercurial; if you use something else then no need to do anything) need you to remove some config files: if you want to store files with the LF line ending in your repo then nothing to do. Otherwise if you use Mercurial remove the .hgeol file, if you use Git remove the .gitattributes file.

For doing upgrades see this other article.

Orchard FAQ

How to configure how many characters are displayed for the Body summary?

You'll need to override the Parts.Body.Summary shape template in your theme or in a module. See Bertrand Le Roy's tutorial on the topic.

Where to place modules and themes?

How to run and debug Orchard locally?

The easiest way to run Orchard is through Visual Studio's built-in Cassini devserver. Just open the Orchard solution and hit Ctrl+F5 (starting without debugging: much faster than starting with debugging with F5).

After the site is started you can attach the debugger to the devserver: Debug/Attach to Process/select WebDev. It's useful to enable breaking when an exception is thrown, even if it's swallowed somewhere: Debug/Exceptions/tick Thrown at CLR Exceptions.

See more tips on setting up your dev environment under the Development Guidelines.

Where are the log files?

If you experience issues in a production environment the best way to start investigating the issue is by taking a look at the log files. These are under AppData/Logs in the deployed site's folder or under src/Orchard.Web/AppData/Logs if you're running from the full source code locally.

How can I test SSL locally?

If you're running your Orchard instance through the auto-configured IIS Express (i.e. by hitting Ctrl + F5) you can access the site through SSL by changing the protocol to https and using the port 44300. This is useful if you want to test e.g. if you've configured the Secure Sockets Layer module correctly.

Orchard training guidelines

The following guidelines serve as a base for Orchard trainings and you're welcome to hold your own Orchard training using these guidelines.

Training methodologies

For methodologies for various forms of Orchard training see training methodologies.

Prerequisites for the participants

Enumeration of technologies and paradigms used in Orchard: C#, MVC (ASP.NET MVC), C# LINQ, C# lambda expressions, dependency injection, inversion of control container, loose coupling, object-relational mapping (NHibernate), composition over inheritance, single responsibility principle, separation of concerns, .NET dynamic, Razor syntax.

Technical requirements

The following tools are needed for an Orchard training:


The topics are each divided into individual modules. These modules can, but don't necessarily have dependency on each other.

Training methodologies

Following are methodologies for various forms of Orchard training.

University course

Class work and examination

Lesson structure

Every lesson begins with a short warm-up task incorporating the topics of the previous lesson.

Lessons generally have repeated cycles of the following form:

  1. Presentation: the course leader explains the current topic (10-15 minutes), if the content is practical (like doing some dashboard work) students follow individually
  2. Group work

    • After hearing the presentation about how to solve a certain problem students are encouraged to try out the new techniques for given tasks in form of a group work. The task either
      • consists of the topic demonstrated before
      • or is something slightly new that can be derived from the demonstration or learned by reading a short documentation. The former one is a good choice if there is enough time, the latter one is efficient if there's only limited time available.
    • Groups of 2-3-4 try to solve a problem while the course leader is helping their work and is available for questions
  3. Evaluation of the group work: discussing common questions and issues


The course has no special examination, instead students should create and finish and Orchard-based web application project.


Additional is the time needed for student presentations (depends on the number of attendees) since the course’s final lesson consists of student presentations and code reviews.

Intensive course

Since intensive courses should be tailored to the participants' needs the following points are just outlines and tips. Time constraint is also a factor that determines how in-depth the training can be, how many demonstrations can be carried out and how big is the part of the API that's only shown.

Core concepts and basic usage (training topic)


Time requirement: 1h 0m

Dependencies: none

Parent topic: Core concepts and basic usage

Basic site management

Time requirement: 2h 15m

Dependencies: none

Parent topic: Core concepts and basic usage

Intermediate content management

Time requirement: 2h 0m

Dependencies: Basic site management

Parent topic: Core concepts and basic usage

Advanced content management

Time requirement: 2h 30m

Dependencies: Intermediate content management

Parent topic: Core concepts and basic usage

Expert content management

Time requirement: 1h 45m

Dependencies: Advanced content management

Parent topic: Core concepts and basic usage

Customization features

Time requirement: 2h 0m

Dependencies: Intermediate content management

Parent topic: Core concepts and basic usage

Basic maintenance

Time requirement: 0h 30m

Dependencies: Basic site management

Parent topic: Core concepts and basic usage

Theme development (training topic)

Getting started with theme development

Time requirement: 2h 0m

Dependencies: none

Parent topic: Theme development

Advanced theme development

Time requirement: 1h 0m

Dependencies: Getting started in theme development

Parent topic: Theme development

Module development and Orchard APIs (training topic)

The below topics are the core of what an Orchard developer should know. Other, less important items are listed under Extended APIs.


Most of this comes from Sipke Schoorstra’s Orchard Harvest session content (APIs, content part development).

We've created a demo module for the purpose of teaching all the topics here with well explained examples. See the Orchard Training Demo module.

The Orchard Cheat Sheet by Sébastien Ros is a great small API reference.

Getting started in module development

Time requirement: 1h 30m

Dependencies: none

Parent topic: Module development and APIs

Basic techniques in module development

Time requirement: 3h 0m

Dependencies: Getting started with module development

Parent topic: Module development and APIs

Developing custom content

Time requirement: 3h 0m

Dependencies: Basic techniques in module development

Parent topic: Module development and APIs

Intermediate techniques in module development

Time requirement: 3h 0m

Dependencies: Basic techniques in module development

Parent topic: Module development and APIs

Advanced techniques in module development

Time requirement: 1h 30m

Dependencies: Intermediate techniques in module development

Parent topic: Module development and APIs

Complementary topics in module development

Time requirement: 1h 0m

Dependencies: Basic techniques in module development

Parent topic: Module development and APIs

Extended APIs (training topic)

The knowledge of the below APIs is not necessary for all developers as these are needed only for more special tasks.

There is no need to go into details about all providers, evaluating a few provider types used in Projector and a Token provider is enough.

Extended APIs I

Time requirement: 1h 30m

Dependencies: Intermediate techniques in module development

Parent topic: Extended APIs

Extended APIs II

Time requirement: 3h

Dependencies: Intermediate techniques in module development

Parent topic: Extended APIs

Extended APIs III

Time requirement: 1h 30m

Dependencies: Intermediate techniques in module development

Parent topic: Extended APIs

Web API (training topic)

Time requirement: 1h 0m

Dependencies: Intermediate techniques in module development

Deployment and optimization (training topic)


Time requirement: 0h 45m

Dependencies: Basic techniques in module development

Parent topic: Deployment and optimization

Manual deployment

Time requirement: 1h 45m

Dependencies: Getting started in module development

Parent topic: Deployment and optimization

Automated deployment

Time requirement: 2h 0m

Dependencies: Manual deployment

Parent topic: Deployment and optimization

Team training (training topic)

Time requirement: 1h 30m

Dependencies: none

Development utilities

Contained here are various utilities aiding daily development.

Visual Studio code snippets

To effectively use this collection of VS snippets just point the Snippets Manager to where you cloned or downloaded this folder. To do this go under Tools/Code Snippets Manager/select the C# language/Add and Add the whole folder.

Note that since C# snippets (unlike VB ones) don't support adding namespaces no matter how we wanted this otherwise you'll need to always add namespaces yourself.

Snippets follow Orchard naming conventions.

We've taken care to place the $end$ terminating symbol to a place where one most possibly wants to follow up with coding. Thus if you escape snippets by hitting enter the cursor will be placed where you most likely want to write next.

These snippets are constantly used at Lombiq and updated according to our experiences.

General snippets

Orchard snippets

Orchard snippets are prefixed with an "o" for distinction.

Surround with snippets: unfortunately it's a bit more difficult for "surround with" snippets; if we'd just include them among the other snippets it would cause the Snippet Picker to open when you try to surround some piece of code, requiring to click through the hierarchy to select a snippet. This is not very convenient so such snippets are in a separate folder, in SurroundWithVisualStudioSnippets. You have to install these snippets manually by importing them into the Visual C# category through the Snippet Manager (this way you can avoid the Snippet Picker).

Orchard test contents

The Orchard export file contain some contents that you can use to test your theme and site layout with. You can download the export file here.

These export files include a varied main menu and a foot menu, items of the most used content types and widgets and typography tests. You can log in with the credentials admin/password.

Orchard Wiki

This Wiki aims to complete the documentation by organizing Orchard-related technical terms into articles. It aims to mainly provide short explanations and links for further exploring each topic.

Please note that there are corresponding Visual Studio code snippets and detailed development guides (Orchard Training Demo module) in the Orchard Dojo Library related to these topics.

Admin menu

To integrate your module with Admin UI, you need to add navigation items to it to make your features easily accessible to users. For this purpose you have to create a class that implements the INavigationProvider interface. If you only have one class of such functionality, the convention is that the file and the class are named AdminMenu and the file is placed in the project root. If you have multiple of these classes, you may want to keep you project root clean and place these in a solution folder called AdminMenu.

The structure of an Admin menu can be the following:

For more customization, you can define whether an item should point to the same action as its first child item with the LinkToFirstChild function.

For more information please see the Visual Studio code snippet related to AdminMenu and a definite guide on how to create one in the Orchard Training Demo module, which also describes how to add icons to your navigation items.

Background task

The IBackgroundTask interface is one of the most simple interfaces you can find in Orchard (aside from the empty marker ones). The only method contained in this interface you need to implement in your class is the Sweep method (without input parameters). Orchard will execute the Sweep method of every IBackgroundTask implementation every 1 minute, so it enables you to simply define some logic that will run periodically. It is useful for recurring tasks and running huge tasks in smaller batches (just like the Orchard.Indexing module does with updating the indices).

For more information please see the Visual Studio code snippet related to background tasks and a definite guide on how to create one in the Orchard Training Demo module.

Content item

Content items are instances of content types, just like objects are instances of classes. Content items are the heart and soul of Orchard: they store all the data you need to handle and display.

Content items are always versioned every time you modify any data on them and are never hard-deleted to keep the integrity of your database. From code they can be interacted with through the Content Manager service.

Content field

Content fields are bits of information that can store basic data, like the common .NET classes, e.g. strings, integers and dates.

Content fields can be attached to a content part in any quantity you like (either by code - in a migration or on the Admin UI), just make sure every field has a unique name. That means that unlike with parts, you can have a specific type of field attached multiple times.

In case you are attaching a content field to a content type on the Admin UI, the fields are attached to a ghost-content part with the same as the content type (if the content type doesn't already have a content part with the same name).

Differences between content parts and content fields:

Content Manager service

The Content Manager is the important service in Orchard that you can use to interact with content items from code.

When developing a module you can use the Content Manager to create, update, retrieve and remove (soft delete) content items, fetch different versions of the same content item as well as import/export items, fetch items' metadata or build display and editor shapes. You can find a detailed example of how to use the Content Manager in the Training Demo module.

Content part

A content part is a set of separate functionalities and data that can be applied to a content type by attaching the content part to a content type. Content parts may not store any corresponding data (in this case, they only add functionality by using existing data) in the database or they can even load data from an external data source (like a webservice). Content fields can be attached to content parts (for the differences between parts and fields, see the fields article).

If your content part stores data in the database, usually it's mapped to a record class (the corresponding content part record), which is an actual representation of the data you are storing in the database. In most cases, content parts derive from ContentPart<TRecord> (where the type parameter is your content part record class), but if the part isn't storing anything in a corresponding record then it can just derive from ContentPart.

Content type

A content type is a blueprint of how content items of that type look like: it defines the set of content parts that make up the content types.

A content type only consists of content parts, even if it seems that you can directly attach content fields to a type from the admin UI. When you attach fields from the admin UI in reality an invisible part is created that has the same name as the content type (e.g. a Page part is created for the Page content type) and the fields get attached to that.

Examples of some basic content types: Page or Blog Post (both containing e.g. Title Part and Body Part).


We mean several things as "core" so initially this may be confusing:

Content part driver

Drivers (more precisely: content part drivers) are pieces of code used in conjunction with content parts. They are responsible for building the editor and display as well as handling importing and exporting of a content part.

Note that the same part can have multiple drivers.

Orchard-style event handlers (aka the Orchard Event Bus)

Event handlers in Orchard work just like in any other programming environment with a very interesting addition: they enable you to create extensions points to your features without worrying about coupling and references. So let's see how they work!

Every Orchard-y event handler has an interface that derives from IEventHandler. In your module you can inject a single IYourEventHandler and now you just created the extension point for your module: if you call the methods on the injected event handler you enable other module authors to interact with your module if they implement this interface. That's okay so far, but in order to make it work, other module authors (or even you, if you want to extend the funtionalities of a feature not written by you) must have a reference on the module's project that hosts this event handler interface.

And here comes the twist: instead all you need to do to implement an event handler that is in another module not referenced by your module is to have an interface in your module with the same name also deriving from IEventHandler and implement that interface! Aside from that, of course, the methods you implement must also have the same name and signature (if there are types that also come from an other module or project you are not referencing, you can replace them with dynamics). Orchard will find these even more loosely coupled implementations solely based on their names and try to match the methods with the original interface. How cool is that?

Further reading:


Modules and themes are collectively called as extensions. The expression is used in the Orchard documentation and also in the source code extensively when a service has to do with modules and themes as well.

Content handler

Content handlers, or more specifically content part handlers are similar to event handlers in programming in general: these methods' job is to handle specific events of a content part, e.g. when it's instantiated, deleted or versioned.

You can find a complete list of such events on the "Understanding content handlers" page of the official documentation.

The InfosetPart content part

InfosetPart is one of Orchard's built-in content parts. It's always automatically attached to every content item of every content type. It represents (and provides access to) the so called infoset of the content item.

The infoset is a simple XML document that is stored along the content item in its ContentItemRecord or if versioned, in the ContentItemVersionRecord. It can store arbitrary data and is commonly used to save content fields' data or data for content parts that needn't be queried. Since the ContentItemRecord and/or ContentItemVersionRecord is always loaded for a content item the infoset is also loaded at all times. Thus anything stored in the infoset can be retrieved quickly, without any subsequent database calls.

Importance for content parts

If a content part needs to store data in the database one of the solutions would be to use a content part record. However such records, if not specifically set for eager-loading, are lazily loaded one by one when using the content item. To overcome this performance issue InfosetPart can be used to store the part's data, eliminating the need for further database queries.

However data stored in the InfosetPart can't be simply queried (i.e. filtered or ordered) using the database engine. By storing data both in the infoset and in the record, however, one can have the best of both worlds: querying is possible using the records but for any other database interaction the records are not loaded.

Orchard contains helper methods to ease the usage of the infoset.

Bertrand Le Roy has written an extensive blogpost about the way and implications of using the InfosetPart.


A migration is special class usually derived from DataMigrationImpl through which you can tell Orchard what kind content parts and content types you wish to create and store in the database, including their fields and settings. In most cases you want to place a file called Migrations to your project root, but if you have more than one of them (e.g. because you have multiple features with separate migrations) you may want to place them in a subfolder called Migrations to keep your project root clean.


Orchard modules are types of extensions. They are designed to extend Orchard's functionality in any way you can imagine.

Modules can have multiple features: features can be independently switched on or off (you have to decorate classes corresponding to a specific feature with the OrchardFeature attribute). Actually what you can enable or disable from the admin UI are features, not modules. However, each module has at least one feature, what has the same ID as the module itself (i.e. the .csproj file's name).

Features can depend on each other (not just on features of the same module but also on features of other modules); this dependency is declared in the Module.txt file (more info about it in the Docs), the manifest of the module. You can only enable a feature if all of its dependencies are installed (and if they are not already enabled, they will be when you enable the feature depending on them).

Orchard's Processing Engine

The Processing Engine (what you can use through the injectable dependency IProcessingEngine) in Orchard is a service that you can use to run arbitrary code in the context of an HTTP request, but after the request is processed.

Tasks queued in the Processing Engine are synchronously executed after the ambient transaction of the request ends, from DefaultOrchardHost.EndRequest(). This means that such tasks can be potentially longer-running as they don't endanger causing a timeout for the request transaction, since they are each run in their own transactions. Processing Engine tasks are still part of the HTTP request though, that means that the execution time of these tasks add to the user-perceivable response time of the application and they can also cause a request timeout.

Note that since Processing Engine tasks are run after a request naturally they need a request to get executed, on an idle site such tasks won't be processed. Also such tasks are only retained for the scope of the request: if something fatal happens and the request completely fails before tasks can be executed than those tasks will be lost; and tasks queued from background tasks won't be processed at all (since there is no corresponding request).

An example of how the Processing Engine is used is in the built-in Orchard.Comments module in CommentService: calculating the number of comments under a given content item is being done from a Processing Engine task.


Records are simple classes that represent a piece of data that is stored in the database as a row in a table. The only special thing about record classes is that their public properties (that correspond to columns in the said table) should be public.

The tables corresponding to records are created and also modified if necessary by migrations.

Orchard uses the NHibernate ORM library as the database abstraction layer.

Resource manifest

A resource manifest is a class implementing the IResourceManifestProvider interface though which you can declare your static resources (e.g. stylesheets and scripts) towards Orchard and give them a unique name to be able to easily use them in your templates. Choosing a unique name for each of resources is quite important to avoid name collisions, since static resources are rendered as shapes and thus can be overridden (see naming conventions).

Scheduled task

Scheduled tasks, which are classes that implement the quite simple IScheduledTaskHandler interface allow you to run some code at a specific time (Orchard will respect it with a 1-minute precision). The way of creating a scheduled task is to first create an IScheduledTaskHandler implementation and put your code inside the only method in this interface called Process. Using the IScheduledTaskManager service, you can create, list and delete scheduled tasks, so in order to register your scheduled task in Orchard, you need to create it first using the CreateTask method. Orchard uses a background task to check for scheduled tasks that should be executed: each scheduled task is stored in the database as a separate record which is deleted when the execution of the given task starts to make sure that they only run once. Please also note that scheduled tasks must have a unique name: according to the Orchard naming best practices, it is advised to prefix it with the name of your module.

For more information please see the Visual Studio code snippet related to scheduled tasks (a simple and a renewing one, the latter depends on the Piedone.HelpfulLibraries module) and a definite guide on how to create one in the Orchard Training Demo module.


Shapes are dynamic view models that are used to construct the data model behind the layout of a page in Orchard. The resulting structure is a tree (the tree of shapes) where each shape corresponds to a piece of markup in the end: shapes containing other shapes produce wrappers around other pieces of markup while the leaves of this tree correspond to simple templates. Each shape contains every information to render their corresponding template: they're the view models for their templates.

Some resources:


Orchard themes are types of extensions. They are designed to be able to change the look and feel of your Orchard website.

Themes contain CSS, JS files and graphics as well as shape templates. Most of the time themes don't contain any C# code apart from resource manifests.


Tokens are pieces of codified text that are be dynamically substituted with other values. E.g. if you want to create a template for an e-mail that should be sent to users but you want to greet the users by their name you can use tokens to send a personalized text like this: "Dear {User.Name}!"

More information about tokens is in the documentation.


Content items in Orchard are versioned by default: this means that if you edit a content item and publish the modifications you don't overwrite what was previously published but you create a new version - that will be the published version.

Versioning illustrated

Let's take a look at Page content items, because Page is a content type that's included in Orchard by default.

That said let's see what happens:

  1. You create a new Page and save it, i.e. click the Save button. You don't click Publish now. This means the Page is saved, but only as a draft. Nobody can see it on the frontend. The Page only has a single version that is a draft. At the same time this version is the latest version.
  2. You now publish the Page (e.g. click Publish now in the editor). This means the Page is now visible on the frontend. The Page only has a single version that is the published one, which is also the latest.
  3. You now edit the Page and save it. This creates a new version of the Page: one is published (and visible) and one is a draft (not visible). So our Page now has two versions; the draft one is the latest (since it's newer than the published version).
  4. You now edit the Page again and save it. Editing a draft won't create a new version: only editing a published version and saving it will create a new version. So our Page still has two versions, one being the draft with the content you just saved and the other one being the published version.
  5. You now edit the page and instead of clicking Save you click Publish now. This saves the changes to the draft, then publishes it. This means our item still has two versions, both published (the result would be the same if we would just clicked Publish draft from the admin listings: it would made the draft version published).
  6. If you now unpublish the item the latest published item will be pushed back to the draft state. This yields that the first version, the published one will be published and again you'll have the latest version as draft.

Soft deletes

Beware that when you remove content items no record is really deleted as Orchard operates with soft deletes: content items are only marked deleted but remain in the database. Actually what happens is that all version of the content item get unpublished and simultaneously loose their flag of being latest; i.e. in the end no version will be marked as published nor latest, thus the item won't be found when fetching the published version.

However, since the versions are still there, they can be retrieved through the Content Manager.

Work Context

WorkContext is one of the most important types in Orchard. It's more or less a generalization of the idea of an HttpContext. It contains a lot of (mostly Orchard-specific) contextual information like the basic site settings, the current theme or user and the HttpContext itself.

The work context is an important aspect of Orchard's dependency framework too. A WorkContext object lives as long as its work context scope lives, what is a dependency injection scope (IDependency implementations live as long as their work context lives): when such a scope is created through IWorkContextAccessor (what you can also use to access the current WorkContext) also the WorkContext is created. Correspondingly there are also methods on the WorkContext class to resolve dependencies (you can use this instead of constructor injection if you want to lazily resolve dependencies).

An HTTP request in Orchard, as well as background tasks are wrapped into an ambient work context. Since work contexts are not tied to an http context you can have multiple work contexts per request and you can have a work context independently of a request too (this happens in background tasks).

Thus such work contexts are externally managed contexts and because of this somehow have to "travel" along with their scope until the latter is terminated: in Orchard the work context is either carried in the HttpContext or in a thread static field (what also causes some limitations).

A work context scope is the lowest dependency scope commonly used. It also has a parent, the shell's scope: this is the shell context (or more precisely, its lifetime scope). You can access a shell's (what is most of the time equal to a tenant) context through IOrchardHost.GetShellContext(). Work context scopes are actually created from the shell context's lifetime scope. Furthermore this also has a parent that is the application-wide HostContainer.

Most of the time you don't have to manage the work context yourself since the ambient work context around requests and background tasks are managed for you.

IWorkContextAccessor is also passed into RouteData.DataTokens. This way the WorkContext (and thus, Orchard services) can be accessed from code that is not under dependency injection like HTML helpers and attributes. See Sipke's tutorial on taking advantage of this.

Orchard examples

This list helps to find where to look if you need an example of something in Orchard, so you can look at it when you need to roll out your own similar solution. This is a selection only, not a full list (e.g. many modules contain content parts).

Project links are only included if the module/theme is not bundled with the Orchard source (then the links point to the source file with the example, when applicable). The Training Demo module is not linked every time, it's under its own repository.


Orchard Dojo Library contribution guidelines

The Orchard Dojo Library is fully open source and can be edited by anyone. If you found an error or would like to improve it you're more than welcome; just submit a pull request!

The Library is stored as Markdown-formatted text files in a repository on GitHub. The files can be edited with any text editor but we recommend Notepad++.

Orchard Dojo Library for Orchard 1.x license

Copyright © 2014, Lombiq Technologies Ltd.

All rights reserved.

For more information and requests about licensing please contact us through our website.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: