Orchard best practices

Always do part shape-related heavy work in shape factories inside drivers: this way if the shape is not displayed (i.e. not specified in or hidden from Placement.info) no work will be done.

protected override DriverResult Display(MyPart part, string displayType, dynamic shapeHelper)
    return ContentShape("Parts_My",
        () =>
            // This delegate will only run if the shape is actually displayed.
            var heavy = /* Some heavy work */;
            return shapeHelper.Parts_My(Heavy: heavy);

When writing a theme if something is achievable by only CSS, then use only CSS and avoid having shape template overrides with minimal modifications. If you absolutely have to create shape overrides then try to override the most specific shape possible: e.g. if you need to override the markup of blogposts' date shown then override just Common.Metadata (the shape responsible for showing the date) and not the whole Content shape.

If a template uses a static resource (stylesheet or script) always include/require it there even if the template is part of a bigger layout where those resources are already referenced. This makes it easier to keep track of dependent resources and is not prone to errors caused by changes outside the specific template.

For improving client-side performance by preventing blocking script loads always include scripts in the foot if they’re not required immediately on page load. Also consider using the async attribute on scripts (by setting it with SetAttribute() at the time of inclusion) if the order in which they’re executed is indifferent.

    // This script will be downloaded asynchronously, without blocking the page loading, but you can't count on it being available at any point in other scripts (so if you have dependent scripts you have to use callbacks or events to signal if the script is loaded).
    Script.Include("my-async-script").SetAttribute("async", "async");

    // This script will be downloaded synchronously but since it's in the foot it won't block the page load and the user will be able to see the full page sooner.

    // Use such usings to run script blocks depending on foot scripts
    using (Script.Foot())
        <script type="text/javascript">
            // Use footscripts here

When you have multiple features in a single module always make the sub-features depend on the main feature for clarity. This will prevent confusion if you want to place some common functionality in the main feature. It should also be the requirement anyway: sub-features are in that module because they have something in common with the main feature.

Always set the Build Action of non-code files (like Placement.info) to Content (under the file's properties in Visual Studio) if they are included in the project (and don't have Content set by default, what they mostly have). Otherwise MSBuild will fail when building Orchard. See a related blogpost.

Although not mandatory, it's good practice to route all your admin controller to under /Admin in a similar way how controllers named AdminController are routed by default. This makes it easier to set up rules for the admin area if one needs it.

Texts presented to the user should always be in form of LocalizedStrings (aka T()). When you want to display dynamic data in the string, it should always have its parameters supplied to it. Never concatenate localized strings with other values as this prevents complete localization. E.g. if you want to display the number of elements use a printf-like pattern:

T("Number of elements: {0}", Model.Count)

See the relevant documentation.

It's nice to have a consistent ordering for dependencies in module manifest files. A good way is to begin with third-party features, then list built-in ones (Orchard.*), both in alphabetical order.

When writing a recurring scheduled task (i.e scheduled tasks that re-schedule themselves) then add the re-scheduling as early as possible to the task handler's Process() method. This lowers the chance of an error causing the task not to be re-scheduled.

When doing I/O-bound work, always use async APIs if available (e.g. web requests, file writes). Using async I/O greatly increases the throughput of the server by not blocking threads to wait for I/O completion.

When you add a client-side plugin to your module or theme (like a jQuery plugin that uses various JS and CSS files, has a readme, etc.) then it's best to keep the folder structure of the plugin intact and copy it to the extension's Content folder (a folder simply serving static files with the same Web.config as Styles and Scripts folders) under its own subfolder. This way maintaining and upgrading the plugin will be easier, not to mention that developers will be able to see all of its files at once.

You'll be able to still include static resources from such a folder through the ResourceManager, you'll just have to use relative paths, e.g. like this in a resource manifest:


The same goes for Script/Style.Include() calls from view templates.

When writing Migrations it's best to consolidate the latest schema in the Create method and only make UpdateFromX() run for existing installations.

public class Migrations : DataMigrationImpl
    public int Create()
            table => table
                .Column<int>("Id", column => column.PrimaryKey().Identity())
                // The Bio column was added later, so it's added in UpdateFrom1() for existing installations.
                // It's also added here for new installations.
                .Column<string>("Bio", column => column.Unlimited())

        // UpdateFrom1() won't run for new installations, they will have the Bio column added by default.
        return 2;

    public int UpdateFrom1()
        // Adding the Bio column for old installations.
            table =>
                table.AddColumn<string>("Bio", column => column.Unlimited())

        return 2;

Never do any non-trivial work (i.e. pretty much anything apart from variable assignments) in the constructors of injectable types. The dependency injection framework can instantiate your type any time, as the tree of dependencies can result in hundreds of instantiations happening when a type is resolved. Thus any work done in a constructor can possibly have a negative performance effect in seemingly unrelated cases.

If you want to produce a value for a field that won't change during the lifetime of the object then do this by lazily producing that value when its first accessed (e.g. with Lazy<T>) .

When you want to store the ID of a content item always use the ContentItem.Id property, never the Id of a content part (if you have a reference to a part you can access the content item ID simply through part.ContentItem.Id). This is because a content part can have a different ID (e.g. due to versioning) than the content item it is attached to.

When you want to access a form field from JavaScript that was built with a statically typed Html helper for a view model property (like with Html.HiddenFor()) then never hard-code the field element's ID into your script: such generated IDs can change with the underlying implementation and by changing the editor prefix. Instead, populate such IDs from your templates, e.g. by passing the output of Html.FieldIdFor() to the script.

When creating a new controller action don't forget to set the page title somewhere, best from the main view template of the action. I.e.:

<h1>@Html.TitleForPage(T("My Page"))</h1>

Or if you just want to set the content of the <title> tag directly (like it is necessary on admin pages, where the title is already displayed):

    Layout.Title = T("My Page");

Note that generally it's bad practice to set the title from content part shape templates: those are meant to be a fragment of the layout so they shouldn't set the title directly; the title is to be set by a higher level component that actually knows what the whole page is about.

About displaying validation info in templates:

If you want to display the validation errors corresponding to a specific field, which is generally a good practice, then you can display it like this:

@Html.ValidationMessageFor(m => m.MyField)

Most of the time it's good practice to also, or instead display a validation summary on the top of the page, but close to the form:


Never display a validation summary from a content part editor for the same reason as not to set the page title (see above).

When creating ad-hoc shapes then (unless the shapes are very generic) prefix the shapes' names with the module's name (e.g. My_Company_My_Module_My_Shape). Shape names are global identifiers, so if they're only interesting for your module you have to use an appropriate name.

Remember authorization! When letting the user fetch content items by ID or otherwise in any way remember that a malicious user might try to trick your code into fetching content not intended to be shown. As a rule of thumb you should always authorize the user's access (through the IAuthorizer service when in a controller if you also want to display authorization messages; otherwise through IAuthorizationService) to a content item object.

Never check the "Own" content permissions (like DeleteOwnContent) directly, just the generic ones (e.g. DeleteContent) as the former ones are handled internally by the latter ones.

When you have no choice but catching the base Exception then use exception fatality check.

Checklist to go through when finishing a new module or theme:

  • Is the manifest properly filled? No "Description for the module" and similar defaults remain?
  • Are there no empty default folders, e.g. a Styles folder with just one Web.config?

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